Friday, May 22, 2020

The Theory of the Contestable Market - 2230 Words

The theory of contestable markets, along with the static and dynamic views of competition, are used as theories to analyse how markets perform. The static view focuses on the structure of the market as the determining factor of competition, with the dynamic view focusing on dynamic aspects such as technology and entrepreneurship. The contestable markets theory has a different focus, focusing on the importance of barriers to entry and exit. Nonetheless it does incorporate features from both views. More importantly it shifts the focus and provides new insight into the workings of competition. The two differing views of competition will be examined, followed by an examination of the contestable market theory, concluding with an analysis of†¦show more content†¦This view portrays competition as a process of change and evolution rather than a static state in which equilibrium will be reached. Hayek, a main architect of this approach, defines competition as a dynamic behavioural a ctivity. Central to this activity is knowledge, how it is acquired and communicated through the economy. He criticises the neoclassical assumption of perfect knowledge, with the view that costs are not a given, and so not exogenous. Competition is a process of interaction with the environment, in which innovation, such as new methods of production and new products, are a response to the unique situation of the economy. It results in the optimal use of resources. (Auerbach 1988) Alchian believes that there is a natural selection process which results in a competitive outcome. Such competition depends not only on the physical possibilities but also the abilities and attitudes of participants, the entrepreneurs and consumers. It therefore argues for property rights, as to increase the level of competition, forcing companies to undergo research and development and to innovate, in order to survive. For competition to be improved and sustained there needs to be a genuine desire on behalf of entrepreneurs to engage in competitive behaviour, to innovate and to invent to drive markets forward and create what Schumpeter famously called the â€Å"gales of creative destruction†. (Vickers, 1995, pp15). In the classic dynamic view, it arguesShow MoreRelated Airline Industry and Contestability Project What is a contestable market?1639 Words   |  7 PagesAirline Industry and Contestability Project What is a contestable market? In a contestable market, there are one or a number of firms which profit maximise. In other words the number of firms is irrelevant. The key assumption to make here is that barriers to entry to the industry are relatively low, as is the cost to exit the industry. The existence of potential entrants into the industry will tend to keep profits to their normal level even in the short run, because existing firms will wantRead More Bus Transport Essay827 Words   |  4 PagesBus Transport A) The nature of the competition in the bus transport market is very specific. The article suggests competition is used to keep out new entrants to the market thus maintaining market share for the larger firms, active competition takes place between small operators or between a large and a small operator. Further evidence suggests the competition was not of substantial benefit to the consumer and only used to get one over on the firms rivals, more services run on routesRead MoreThe Oligopoly Theory2874 Words   |  12 PagesRunning head: Oligopoly Theory The Oligopoly Theory OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Table of Contents Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.4 Oligopolistic Competition†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...5 Characteristics of an Oligopoly†¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦....6 Models of Oligopoly Behavior†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 Conclusion†¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...11 References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MorePossibility Of Becoming Monopolized Market1007 Words   |  5 Pagesof Becoming Monopolized Market Referring to the textbook, the definition of monopoly is a market structure where a single firm serves as an entire market for a good that has no close substitutes. It acts as the crucial threat to innovation and low prices. Due to the fact, the dominance of single-firm with more than half of its market share is almost as harmful to consumer as a monopoly. Back in 1970s, the entrance of WorldCom, Inc. and Sprint into telecommunication market had effect on increasingRead MorePrice Makers and Price Takers952 Words   |  4 PagesMarket Structure o Perfect (pure) competition Price–taking firms each with no influence over the ruling market price (see diagram below) Free entry and exist of businesses in the long run – drives down profits towards a normal profit equilibrium level Each supplier produces homogeneous products – each a perfect substitute – hence the perfectly elastic demand curve for the individual supplier Key factor - interdependent nature of pricing decisions between rival firms Each firm must considerRead MoreTaking a Look at Vertex901 Words   |  4 Pagessuction effect – the dominant firm lowers the average price of its products and captures contestable sales which the firm was unable to capture before. Vertex offered two largest distributors in the market rolled-back target rebates. Under this scheme, rebates were applied to the total turnover previously realized over a certain period. The court has been harsh in treating rebates without fully considering the theory of harm of rebates (Michelin II). Although the Commission issued a new guidance tacklingRead MoreMarketing Analysis : Perfect Competition2982 Words   |  12 PagesIntroduction Markets do not have control of how their products are sold to consumers who strive to purchase merchandise. Every market has its own particular regulations relating to how buyers purchase items and how sellers sell them. This concept aids businesses in regulating how they function and how they must operate in future. I will provide an adequate amount of information concerning perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly. I will also discuss how each term isRead MorePharmaceutical Industry Pricing Models Essay3586 Words   |  15 Pagesinvestments fail to produce a marketable drug, and of those drugs that do make it to market, few are commercially successful. A higher than average rate of return may represent the premium needed to attract each marginal investment into an industry with such high risk. As noted previously, the study of pharmaceutical prices is made more complicated by the absence of a uniform price across buyers and geographic areas. The mark et for pharmaceuticals is highly segmented, both domestically and internationallyRead MoreThe Case of Romanian Cigarette Market10250 Words   |  41 PagesCHAPTER VIII. STUDY-CASES 1. THE CASE OF ROMANIAN CIGARETTE MARKET 1. Introduction Among the obligations assumed by Romania by(1) the EU Adhesion Treaty (2)there is the fact that, until 2010, the minimum tax level for cigarettes must be aligned with the minimum tax level of the member states – 57% of the most popular cigarettes’ (MPPC) price, but not less than 64 Euros for 1000 cigarettes. Through the modifications made to the Fiscal Code in April 2006 by the OU 33/2006 the government approvedRead MoreGlobalization and Human Resources2045 Words   |  9 Pagesways: The first impact of globalization is it will increase the opportunities to reap scale and scope economies. The development of exploitation economies is heavily influenced by technological progress. Economies will only materialize in markets where the demand fits well with either type of economies (Baumol, Panzar, and Willig, 1982). The second impact of globalization is it will increase the love for variety and taste convergence, implying larger peaks and expanded peripheries. The

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The College Problem Solution Essay Topics Cover Up

The College Problem Solution Essay Topics Cover Up Depending on what sort of school you're likely to, is dependent on what sort of issues you're going to face. Colleges are interested in finding a feeling of maturity and introspectionpinpoint the transformation and demonstrate your private growth. College Problem Solution Essay Topics Features The problem solution essay is similar to any other that you've written it has different sections. Once you have discussed the very first portion of the essay, which is in fact the issue, move on to its second part solution. If you realize that there is some type of a problem explained in the job, and you're requested to give possible way outs, then you need to repeat the issue and solution definitions. The issue and solution essay writing procedure can be created easy when you've got a plan in mind. It's still true that you wonder how someone can help students. While each person problems are unique to their existing conditions, I un derstand there are some difficulties that just about all college students deal with at least one time during their time at school. During the duration of your academic career, whether at school or university, you'll probably have to write a minumum of one problem solution essay. A problem solution essay seems to be something which not only college students may get assigned. Don't go from the goals you've set in your essay writing so you're able to attain the desired effects that you wanted. The hardest task is to locate a great topic for your essay. Hence, you've been provided with the simplest topic for problem solution essays, you can choose any on of the above mentioned and get started writing your essay very quickly. You can open a chain reaction by means of your essay. The issue and solution essay examples on the page will steer you on the very best approach that you ought to take for writing your paper. Issue arrangement essay is a form of an exploration paper in which you portray a particular issue and endeavor to discover a way of comprehending it. Topic selection is very important whenever writing a problem-reducing essay. When you're assigned to compose a problem-solution essay or research paper, selecting a fantastic topic is the initial dilemma you have to work out. The last area of the problem solution essay is a reminder of the introduction and the logical end of the argument presented in the primary body. Your task is to locate the most significant ones and then to produce some problem-solution. If you own a topic provided already, click the order now button to file your request. To start with, it's that type of writing which revolves around one specific theme that is either a local or maybe a worldwide issue. Top College Problem Solution Essay Topics Secrets The web increases the range of happy long-distance relationships. There are several problem solution essay topics on the Internet that you just don't understand what to select. Moving forward in little ways can help you feel empowered and in control. Thus, the target of a problem-reducing essay isn't to get the best solution for a specific problem, but instead to get the best solution. Among the excellent things about problem solution essays is they have a fairly clear structure. The main reason is there are basically only two important things you should write about in your problem and solution essay, making it so much simpler to research info and structure the paper. All About College Problem Solution Essay Topics If you don't have a thing to write about in regards to your essay it's an issue. If you are searching for ideas for your problem solution essay topic, then you've come to the correct place. These days, there are lots of issues to chat about. As an example, telling readers they're to blame if they do nothing to address the issue is a sure-fire means to lose readers. Facts, Fiction and College Problem Solution Essay Topics It is extremel y easy to acquire an entire group of such topics if you simply look around. It's very similar to other types of essays in a challenge to pick an acceptable topic. There are additionally some descriptions so you might find the fullest picture of what a terrific topic ought to be. Whenever you have so many topics to speak about, choose what you're passionate about and it is going to be super-easy that you develop a considerable argument for it. While picking a topic for your essay be sure you are passionate about it and don't get lost among lots of information that can be found. As with other essays, people frequently discover that it's tricky to choose a topic particularly when the instructor asks students to produce their own topics. All you will need is a simple topic.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fund Flow Analysis Free Essays

Every business concern, at the end of its financial period, prepares Income Statements and Balance Sheet. Income Statements show the net result, Net Profit, of the business operations and contains various expenses incurred and losses and revenue earned during that period. Balance Sheet gives a summary of assets and liabilities as on a particular date and shows the financial position of the business. We will write a custom essay sample on Fund Flow Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now The liabilities side of a balance sheet shows the sources from where funds are raised and the assets side shows how the funds raised are utilized. But it does not show the causes or reasons for changes in assets and liabilities, flow of funds, between two balance sheet dates. Therefore, a statement is prepared in addition to the Income Statements and Balance Sheet, to show changes in assets and liabilities between two balance sheet dates, which is known as Fund Flow Statement. It is a statement, also known as Statement of Changes in Financial Position, designed to analyse the changes in financial condition of a concern between to specified dates. The Term â€Å"Fund† The term â€Å"Fund† can be explained in many ways. In the narrow sense, it means cash only. Transactions involving cash receipts and payments are considered in this approach. In the broader sense, fund means working capital, which is the excess of current assets over current liabilities. For fund flow analysis, the broader approach, working capital approach, is considered. The word â€Å"Flow† means change and â€Å"fund flow† means change in funds or change in working capital. Any increase or decrease in working capital is flow of funds. Flow of funds may be either inflow of funds or outflow of funds. Inflow refers to sources of funds and outflow refers to applications of funds. If a transaction brings any change in working capital, flow of funds takes place. This will happen when changes occurs in the values of fixed assets, share capital, long term debts etc. with the corresponding changes in the values of current assets or current liabilities. Many transactions which take place in a business enterprise may increase or decrease its working capital or even may not affect any change in it. Following are some examples: Purchase of fixed assets: When an asset is purchased, cash is going out there by reducing the cash balance. The effect of this transaction is that working capital decreases and this change (decrease) in working capital is called as application of funds. Here the accounts involved are Current Assets (Cash) and Fixed Assets. Issue of share capital: This transaction will increase the working capital as cash balance increases. This change (increase) in working capital is called as source of funds. Here the two accounts involved are current assets (Cash) and Shareholders’ Funds (Share Capital). Sale of Fixed Assets: The transaction will have the effect of increasing the working capital as the cash balance increases thereby increasing working capital. It is a source of funds. Here the accounts involved are current assets (Cash) and Fixed Assets. Redemption of debentures: This transaction has the effect of reducing the working capital, as it results in reduction in cash balance. It is an application of funds. The two accounts affected by this transaction are Current Assets (Cash) and Long-Term Liability (Debenture). Purchase of inventory: This transaction results in decrease in cash and increase in stock thereby keeping the total current assets at the same figure. Hence there will be no change in the Working Capital. In this case both the accounts involved are Current Assets (Cash and Stock). Accepting Bills Payable issued by creditors: The effect of this transaction on Working Capital is Nil as it results in increase in bills payable (a current liability) and decreases the creditors (another current liability). Since there is no change in total current liabilities there is no flow of funds. The accounts involved as current liabilities. Fixed Assets purchased and payment is made by issuing shares: This transaction will not have any impact on working capital as it does not result in any change either in the current asset or in the current liability. Hence there is no flow of funds. The two accounts affected are Fixed Assets and Shareholders’ Funds (Capital a/c). From the above examples, it is clear that there will be flow of funds when the transaction involves: a) Current assets and fixed assets b) Current assets and capital c) Current assets and long term liabilities d) Current liabilities and long term liabilities e) Current liabilities and fixed assets. How to cite Fund Flow Analysis, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption Essay Example

Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption Paper The story of Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption starts in 1947 when Andy Dufresne arrives at Shawshank prison. Unlikely the other convicts Andy is not a hardened criminal. He is a soft-spoken banker convicted of killing his wife and her lover. Andy claims he is innocent. Soon after he arrives at the prison The Sisters, a gang of prison rapists led by Bogs Diamond, turn their attentions to Andy. The story is narrated by Red. He is the guy who can get stuff. Red his well known for being able to get almost anything into Shawshank prison, and this is the reason that Andy approaches him. Andy has kept himself to himself, but one day approaches Red in the exercise yard. Andy used to enjoy rock-carving, and wishes to continue to do so inside the prison, now that he has plenty of time on his hands. He asks Red to get him a rock hammer. Red is a little suspicious at first, thinking this may be a lethal object (which it is). However he understands Andys request a little more when the hammer arrives. Andy used the hammer to shape himself rocks he finds in the exercise yard. He is aiming to complete an entire chess set. Andy and Red develop a very respectful friendship. We will write a custom essay sample on Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer After some time Andy comes into the movie theatre and asks Red to get him a poster of Rita Hayworth, who appears on the movie screen that Red is watching (This is the only reference to Rita Hayworth in the story). Red notices that Andy is uncharacteristically nervous and excited when asking for the poster. The prison agrees to provide prisons to tar the roof of a building. Obviously prisoners are keen to leave the prison even if it means hard labor. Red, being the influential man he is, discretely arranges for the guards to ensure that Red and his pals get the work detail. Whilst on the roof Hadley, the chief of the guard, is telling the other guards how he has been left an inheritance by his wealthy brother. The other guards are enthusiastic for him, however Hadley complains about the tax he will have to pay on the inheritance. Andy approachs Hadley, who nearly throws him off the roof. Buy Andy continues and explains that there is a loophole which allows Hadley to keep his entire inheritance, without paying tax. Andy offers to complete the paperwork in exchange for some beers for himself and his fellow work detail prisoners. This is a major event in the story as Andy become well regarded with his inmate friends and the guards. As with his life outside, Andy becomes a successful financial advisor inside the prison. The prison employees use Andy to complete their tax returns, loan applications and other similar financial tasks. In return the guards get Andy protection from Bogs and the other Sisters. Andy is also able to occupy his cell on his own, unlike most other inmates. In the book Andy does share his cell briefly with an Indian called Normaden. He soon leaves though, mentioning a bad draft in the cell whilst he was there. Normaden does not appear in the movie. In the movie all prisoners have their own cell. When Brooks the librarian is paroled, Andy takes over the librarian role. Andy sends weekly letters to the state senate asking for funds for books. The other inmates and guards think he is wasting his time. The state only spends prison money on bars, not books. Andy receives no response to his letters, until one day he does receive money (books in the movie). Andy then starts to write twice weekly. Andys persistent work grows the library greatly. Andy helps several other inmates to get their high school diplomas and degrees. One of the many wardens in the novel (there is only one Warden, Norton, in the movie) starts a program called Inside-Out, in which inmates work outside the prison for very low wages. Other companies cannot compete with this low-cost labor, and often bribe warden Norton not to bid on contracts. This cash has to be laundered, and Andy does this for free, for continued protection in the prison, and the sake of the library. A new prisoner called Tommy comes to Shawshank prison. Tommy tells another prisoner, who tells Andy, that Tommy had had a cellmate at a different prison who bragged about killing a rich golfer and some hot-shot bankers wife, and the banker getting jailed for it. This is clearly the real killer of Andys wife. Andy sees the possibility of a new trial since this evidence would prove his innocence. Warden Norton dismisses the story, telling Andy to ignore this made up story. When Andy argues with him warden Norton sends Andy to solitary confinement, to remind Andy of his place in the prison hierarchy. Norton interviews Tommy about the information he has. Norton is concerned about loosing Andy, and makes a deal with Tommy. Tommy will not talk of the information he has, and he gets transferred to a minimum security prison. In the movie Tommy is shot by guard Hadley. When Andy returns from solitary confinement he finds Tommy gone, along with any chance of Andys freedom. In Andys disappointed state he talks at length with Red. Andy tells Red of his dream of moving to Mexico, and settling in the small town of Zihuatanejo on the Pacific coastline. Red starts to worry about Andy, stating that he is talking funny. Andy tells Red of a town in Buxton in Maine, that was a special place for him and his wife. Andy tells Red that when he gets out of Shawshank, to locate a specific tree in a specific field in this town. Several weeks pass, and on one morning Andy is discovered missing at roll call. An initial search does not find Andy. The warden is looking in Andys cell when he discovers a poster covering the wall, now Raquel Welch. The warden removes the poster and finds a man-sized tunnel cut through the walls of the prison. Andy had been spending his evenings, since getting his rock hammer, slowly digging through the prison walls. On the night of his escape, once through the prison walls, Andy broke into a sewage pipe and crawled 500 yards through it, and finally came out into a ditch beyond the grounds of Shawshank prison. Andy was free. A while after Red gets a blank postcard from a small town in Texas (McNary), near the U. S. -Meixco border. Red knows this is Andy letting him know all is well, and he is heading to Mexico. Red is paroled and begins to make a life for himself outside of the prison. Red hick-hikes to Buxton, and finds the field and tree Andy has told him about. Red finds a buried tin, with a note from Andy, and a sum of money. Red violates his parole and catches a bus to Mexico, hoping to find his friend Andy. The novella ends here, but the movie has a final shot where we see Red waking across a sun drenched beach in Mexico, towards Andy who is working on his boat.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Who Invented Catseye Road Studs - Percy Shaw

Who Invented Catseye Road Studs - Percy Shaw Percy Shaw (1890-1976) was an English inventor best known for inventing cats eye road studs in 1934. Cats eyes are the road reflectors which help drivers see the road in the fog or at night. In 1947, British Labor Junior Transport Minister Jim Callaghan introduced cats eyes on British roads. Percy Shaw Manufacturer and inventor Percy Shaw was born on April 15, 1890, in Halifax, England. After attending the Boothtown boarding school, Percy Shaw began working as a laborer at a blanket mill at the age of thirteen, however, he studied shorthand and bookkeeping at night school. He started a repair business with his father fixing rollers, which evolved into a path and driveway building business. He designed a miniature motorized roller to aid him in building driveways and paths.​ Cats Eye Road Studs The area in which Percy Shaw lived was prone to fog and the local roads were often hazardous for motorists. Shaw decided to invent reflecting studs that would be set into the surface of unlit roads. He was inspired by the reflection of car headlights in road signs. In fact, he based the idea on another invention- reflective road signs that had been patented in 1927. Percy Shaw patented his Maltese cross-shaped road studs (U.K patent #436,290 and #457,536) and trademarked the name Cats Eye. He formed the Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd to manufacture the new road studs. However, sales were sluggish until the Ministry of Transport mandated Catseyes for British roads.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Habits and Traits of Hobo Spiders (Tegenaria agrestis)

Habits and Traits of Hobo Spiders (Tegenaria agrestis) The hobo spider, Tegenaria agrestis, is native to Europe, where it is considered harmless. But in North America, where it was introduced, people seem to believe the hobo spider is among the most dangerous creatures we can encounter in our homes. Its time to set the record straight about the hobo spider. Hobo Spider Description The features that distinguish Tegenaria agrestis from other similar-looking spiders are only visible under magnification. Arachnologists identify hobo spiders by examining their genitalia (reproductive organs), chelicerae (mouthparts), setae (body hairs), and eyes with a microscope. Directly stated, you cannot accurately identify a hobo spider by its color, markings, shape, or size, nor can you identify Tegenaria agrestis with the naked eye alone. The hobo spider is generally brown or rust in color, with a chevron or herringbone pattern on the dorsal side of the abdomen. This is not considered a diagnostic trait, however, and cannot be used to identify the species. Hobo spiders are medium in size (up to 15 mm in body length, not including the legs), with females slightly larger than males. Hobo spiders are venomous, but not considered dangerous in their native European range. In North America, hobo spiders have been considered a species of medical concern for the past several decades, although there doesnt seem to be any scientific evidence to support such an assertion about Tegenaria agrestis. No studies have proven that hobo spider venom causes necrosis of the skin in humans, as is often claimed. In fact, there has only been one documented case of a person developing skin necrosis after a hobo spider bite, and that patient had other medical issues also known to cause necrosis. Additionally, spider bites are extremely rare, and hobo spiders are no more inclined to bite a human than any other spider you might encounter. Think You Found a Hobo Spider? If you are concerned that you may have found a hobo spider in your home, there are a few things you can observe  to be sure your mystery spider is not a hobo spider. First, hobo spiders never have dark bands on their legs. Second, hobo spiders dont have two dark stripes on the cephalothorax. And third, if your spider has a shiny orange cephalothorax and smooth, shiny legs, it is not a hobo spider. Classification Kingdom - AnimaliaPhylum - ArthropodaClass – ArachnidaOrder – AraneaeFamily – AgelenidaeGenus – TegenariaSpecies - agrestis Diet Hobo spiders hunt other arthropods, primarily insects but sometimes other spiders. Life Cycle The hobo spider life cycle is believed to live  as long as three years in inland areas of North America, but just one year in coastal areas. Adult hobo spiders usually die in the fall after reproducing, but some adult females will overwinter. Hobo spiders reach adulthood and sexual maturity in the summer. Males wander in search of mates. When he finds a female in her web, the male hobo spider will approach her with caution so hes not mistaken as prey. He knocks at the funnel entrance by tapping a pattern on her web, and retreats and advances several times until she seems receptive. To finish his courtship of her, the male will add silk to her web. In early fall, mated females produce up to four egg sacs of up to 100 eggs each. The mother hobo spider attaches each egg sac to the underside of an object or surface. The spiderlings emerge the following spring. Special Behaviors and Defenses Hobo spiders belong to the family Agelenidae, known as the funnel-web spiders or funnel weavers. They construct horizontal webs with a funnel-shaped retreat, usually to one side, but sometimes in the center of the web. Hobo spiders tend to stay on or near the ground and wait for prey from within the safety of their silk retreats. Habitat Hobo spiders typically inhabit wood piles, landscape beds, and similar areas where they can construct their webs. When found near structures, theyre often seen in basement window wells or other darker, protected areas near the foundation. Hobo spiders dont usually live indoors, but occasionally make their way into peoples home. Look for them in the darkest corners of the basement, or along the perimeter of the basement floor. Range The hobo spider is native to Europe. In North America, Tenegaria agrestis is well-established in the Pacific Northwest, as well as parts of Utah, Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, and British Columbia. Other Common Names Some people call this species the aggressive house spider, but there is no truth to this characterization. Hobo spiders are quite docile, and only bite if provoked or cornered. Its believed that someone christened the spider with this misnomer, thinking the scientific name agrestis meant aggressive, and the name stuck. In fact, the name agrestis comes from the Latin for rural. Its also worth noting that an August 2013 analysis of European funnel-web spiders reclassified the hobo spider as Eratigena agrestis. But because this is not yet widely used, weve chosen to use the previous scientific name Tenegaria agrestis for the time being. Sources Vetter, Rick L, and Art Antonelli. How to Identify (and Misidentify) the Hobo Spider. UC Riverside and Washington State University.Hobo Spider.  UC IPM Online,  May 2006.Hobo Spiders (Tenegaria agrestis). Utah State University Extension.Myth: How to Recognize Hobo Spiders.  Burke Museum.Mullen, Gary R, and Lance A. Durden.  Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009.Russell, Richard C, Domenico Otranto, and Richard L. Wall.  The Encyclopedia of Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Wallingford: CABI, 2013.Family Agelenidae - Funnel Weavers. BugGuide.Net.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Negative Election Advertising and Its Impact Research Paper

Negative Election Advertising and Its Impact - Research Paper Example Negative advertising has steadily increased from the 1960s, and the messages emanating from these campaigns include  attacks  focused  on  individuals and their personal characteristics and issues or attacks that may be relevant or irrelevant to issues being handled at that moment. In this context, Jamieson  in her researches  suggested  that  negative advertisements focus  mainly on an adversary ’s failure  and are different from  contrast advertisements, where the latter provides  Ã¢â‚¬Å"explicit  comparisons  between  the  candidates’  qualities,  records  or  proposals† (Jamieson 99). Researchers have suggested that specific factors often affect the style and mode of negative advertising, such as certain traits of a candidate, characteristics like his or her political status, or gender of the candidate. Researchers further suggest  that  candidates appearing to trail during campaigns generally prefer using negative advertisements to gain a favorable position.  However, when differences between candidates are very small and one candidate is seen to be leading the campaign by a small margin, that person may resort to negative advertising to  maintain  and the gap and stop the opponents from catching up. The  gender of  the main  candidate  and  his or her adversary,  party  affiliations,  and  dissimilitude in  election  funding (between the chief candidate and his opponent)  also  affect the use of negative  advertising. A majority of the researches, until date, have explored negative advertising based on candidate dissimilarities. Various scholars have contended that gender is one of the crucial factors during choosing political campaign strategies where women candidates tend to relay their electoral messages (rhetoric) to the public in a different manner, owing to stereotypes that are gender-based.  Ã‚